Methods of Job Design

Job Simplification

In job design, this simplification technique simplifies or specialized the job. A given job is divided into small sub-parts and each part is assigned to one individual employee. Job simplification is introduced when job designers feel that the jobs are not specialized enough.

Job Rotation

Job rotation implies systematic movement of employees from one job to the other for job design. The job remains unchanged but employees performing them shift from one job to the other. With job rotation, an employee is given an opportunity to perform different jobs, which enriches his skills, experience, and ability to perform different jobs. It is the process of preparing employees at a lower level to replace someone at the next higher level. It is generally done for the designations that are crucial for the effective and efficient functioning of the organization. By this, to some extent boredom is reduced. However, for this people, interest is primary importance. By this, they can also learn new things, new techniques, and new ways of doing better work. It may also happen that over a period of time they will be finding a job for which they are better suitable. They can also contribute in a better way to achieve the goals of the organization.

This aspect of job rotation can be seen widely applied in a Retail scenario, where end user or consumer is in direct presence all through. This has too large extent reduced boredom, reduced irregularities due to familiarity, acquired new skills & assuming new and varied responsibilities. In other words, it will lead to better job satisfaction, which is the ultimate goal for better contribution.

Job Enlargement

Job enlargement means expanding the scope of the job design. Many tasks and duties are aggregated and assigned to a single job. It is opposite to job simplification. Job enlargement is an extension of Job rotation, exposing the people to several jobs without changing the job duties to be performed. He is taken off the boring job for a while & is allowed to take up a related task & so on. Monotony is relieved temporarily. Critics are of the opinion that this approach involves nothing more than having to perform several boring jobs rather than one. Job enlargement is to expand in several tasks than just to do one single task. It is also the horizontal expansion of a job. It involves the addition of tasks at the same level of skill and responsibility. It is done to keep workers from getting bored. This would also be considered multitasking by which one person would do several person jobs, saving the company money and man hours that normally would be paid to additional workers.   Small companies may not have as many opportunities for promotions, so they try to motivate employees through job enlargement. For example when I worked at a restaurant. I would bus the tables, wash the dishes, and run food upstairs. If they had just one person doing each job on the same night, it would cost the management three times the money. This adds more functions; increases variety of tasks and this is short lived. It cannot enrich the human content of the job. The ultimate answer is Job Enrichment.

Job Enrichment

Job enrichment means making the job-rich in its contents so that an employee will get more satisfaction while performing that job. It upgrades the responsibility, scope, and challenge. A vast majority of the jobs are repetitive and monotonous in nature. This results in reducing the motivational content and human element of the job with repercussions on performance. The central focus of job enrichment is giving people more control over their work (lack of control is a key cause of stress, and therefore of unhappiness.) Where possible, allow them to take on tasks that are typically done by supervisors. This means that they have more influence over planning, executing, and evaluating the jobs they do. In enriched jobs, people complete activities with increased freedom, independence, and responsibility. They also receive plenty of feedback, so that they can assess and correct their own performance.

Job Enrichment tries to embellish the job with factors of motivation:

  1. Achievement
  2. Recognition
  3. Increased Responsibilities
  4. Self Involvement
  5. Opportunities for Growth
  6. Advancement
  7. Increased Competence.

Job Enrichment is concerned with redesigning the job to include a variety of work content; that gives the person more autonomy & responsibility for planning, directing & controlling his own performance & provide an opportunity for personal growth & meaningful work experience. Job Enrichment also for decentralization of decision-making rights to an individual over areas that directly affect his task functions.

The emphasis is on the result of efforts rather than the procedure to carry out the work, thus making the job result oriented. This also results in motivation, satisfaction in believing oneself to be personally accountable for results & being able to know how satisfactory one’s efforts are. By Job Enrichment, condition or state of human capabilities which were not fully utilized & creation of frustration among the individual is removed to the extent possible.

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