Art implies the application of knowledge & skill to trying about desired results. An art may be defined as a personalized application of general theoretical principles for achieving best possible results. Art has the following characters –
Practical Knowledge: Every art requires practical knowledge, therefore, learning of theory is not sufficient. It is very important to know practical application of theoretical principles. E.g. to become a good painter, the person may not only be knowing different color and brushes but different designs, dimensions, situations etc to use them appropriately. A manager can never be successful just by obtaining degree or diploma in management; he must have also know how to apply various principles in real situations by functioning in a capacity of manager.
Personal Skill: Although theoretical base may be same for every artist, each one has his own style and approach towards his job. That is why the level of success and quality of performance differs from one person to another. E.g. there are several qualified painters but M.F. Hussain is recognized for his style. Similarly, management as an art is also personalized. Every manager has his own way of managing things based on his knowledge, experience, and personality, that is why some managers are known as good managers (like Aditya Birla, Rahul Bajaj) whereas others as bad.
Creativity: Every artist has an element of creativity in line. That is why he aims at producing something that has never existed before which requires a combination of intelligence & imagination. Management is also creative in nature like any other art. It combines human and non-human resources in a useful way so as to achieve desired results. It tries to produce sweet music by combining chords in an efficient manner.
Perfection through practice: Practice makes a man perfect. Every artist becomes more and more proficient in constant practice. Similarly, managers learn through an art of trial and error initially but an application of management principles over the years makes them perfect for the job of managing.
Goal-Oriented: Every art is result oriented as it seeks to achieve concrete results. In the same manner, management is also directed towards the accomplishment of pre-determined goals. Managers use various resources like men, money, material, machinery & methods to promote the growth of an organization.
Thus, we can say that management is an art, therefore, it requires the application of certain principles rather it is an art of highest order because it deals with molding the attitude and behavior of people at work towards desired goals.
Management as both Science and Art
Management is both an art and a science. The above-mentioned points clearly reveal that management combines features of both sciences as well as art. It is considered as a science because it has an organized body of knowledge which contains certain universal truth. It is called an art because managing requires certain skills which are personal possessions of managers. Science provides the knowledge & art deals with the application of knowledge and skills.
A manager to be successful in his profession must acquire the knowledge of science & the art of applying it. Therefore management is a judicious blend of science as well as an art because it proves the principles and the way these principles are applied is a matter of art. Science teaches to ’know’ and art teaches to ’do’. E.g. a person cannot become a good singer unless he has knowledge about various ragas & he also applies his personal skill in the art of singing. Same way it is not sufficient for a manager to first know the principles but he must also apply them in solving various managerial problems that is why, science and art are not mutually exclusive but they are complementary to each other (like tea and biscuit, bread and butter etc.).
The old saying that “Manager is Born” has been rejected in favor of “Managers are Made”. It has been aptly remarked that management is the oldest of art and youngest of science. To conclude, we can say that science is the root and art is the fruit.